• 2023年5月21日


    DOJ No-Poaching Agreements: A Closer Look

    In the world of business, competition is inevitable. Companies compete for market share, talent, and resources. However, there are certain practices that can impede fair competition and harm both employees and consumers. One of these practices is the use of no-poaching agreements, which have been under scrutiny by the Department of Justice (DOJ) in recent years.

    What are No-Poaching Agreements?

    A no-poaching agreement is a contractual arrangement between two or more companies not to hire each other`s employees. Such agreements can be explicit or implied, and can take various forms such as non-compete clauses, no-solicitation clauses, or informal understandings among executives. The rationale behind these agreements is to prevent “poaching” of employees, which can lead to higher wages and turnover costs for companies.

    Why are No-Poaching Agreements a Concern?

    While no-poaching agreements may seem harmless, they can have serious anticompetitive effects. By agreeing not to hire each other`s employees, companies can limit job opportunities for workers and reduce their bargaining power. This can result in lower wages, fewer benefits, and less mobility for employees. It can also lead to a lack of innovation and productivity in the industry as talent is not free to move between companies.

    Moreover, no-poaching agreements can violate antitrust laws if they restrain competition in the labor market. The DOJ has been cracking down on such agreements, especially in industries such as healthcare and tech where they have been prevalent. In 2016, the DOJ and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued joint guidance warning that such agreements can be illegal under antitrust laws and may result in civil or criminal actions.

    What are the Implications for Employers?

    Employers should be aware of the antitrust risks associated with no-poaching agreements and take steps to avoid them. This includes reviewing their employment contracts, policies, and practices to ensure that they do not contain anti-competitive language or restrictions. Employers should also train their managers and recruiters to avoid colluding with competitors on hiring practices.

    The DOJ has indicated that it will continue to scrutinize no-poaching agreements and pursue enforcement actions against violators. In 2018, the DOJ settled with several companies, including rail equipment suppliers, for entering into no-poaching agreements with their competitors. Employers found in violation may face hefty fines, reputational damage, and legal expenses.


    No-poaching agreements may seem like a reasonable way to protect companies` interests, but they can harm employees, restrict competition, and violate antitrust laws. Employers should take steps to avoid such agreements and ensure that their employment practices are compliant with antitrust laws. By promoting fair competition and free mobility of talent, companies can create more innovative and inclusive workplaces for their employees.

  • 2023年5月8日


    Quasi Agreement Is: A Brief Explanation

    The term “quasi agreement” may not be a commonly heard term, but it is an important concept to understand when it comes to legal agreements and contracts. Quasi agreement is a legal term that refers to an agreement that is not a formal contract but is still legally binding.

    In quasi agreements, both parties have agreed to a certain arrangement or exchange of goods or services, but the agreement was not made in the form of a formal contract. This can happen in various situations, such as when a person performs a service without discussing payment beforehand, and the recipient of the service later agrees to pay for it.

    Quasi agreements are also known as implied contracts or contracts implied in fact. They are different from express contracts, which are formal agreements that are explicitly stated in writing or verbally. In quasi agreements, the terms of the agreement are inferred from the actions and behavior of the parties involved.

    For example, let`s say a contractor is hired to perform work on a house, but no written contract is signed. The contractor completes the work, and the homeowner approves of the work and agrees to pay the contractor. In this scenario, a quasi agreement has been formed, and the homeowner is legally obligated to pay for the work performed.

    It`s important to note that quasi agreements are still subject to certain legal requirements. For example, there must be mutual assent between both parties, meaning they both intended to enter into the agreement. Additionally, there must be consideration, meaning both parties must exchange something of value as a part of the agreement.

    In summary, quasi agreement is a legal term that refers to an agreement that is not a formal contract but is still legally binding. These agreements are inferred from the actions and behavior of the parties involved and are subject to legal requirements such as mutual assent and consideration. It`s important to understand quasi agreements to ensure that you are aware of your legal obligations in various situations.

  • 2023年5月2日


    Pronoun-antecedent agreement is a crucial aspect of writing that is often overlooked. It is essential to ensure that pronouns and their antecedents agree in number and gender, to avoid ambiguity and confusion. To help you polish your pronoun-antecedent agreement skills, we have provided a worksheet with answers that you can use to practice.


    Read the following paragraph carefully and identify the pronouns and their antecedents. Fill in the blanks with the correct pronoun.

    Maria and Sarah are going to the mall. (1) ___ want to buy new dresses for the party. Maria tried on several dresses, but (2) ____ didn’t like any of them. Sarah picked a blue dress, and (3) ____ looked stunning in it. (4) ___ decided to buy matching shoes to go with their dresses. They went to the shoe store, and (5) ____ found the perfect shoes. (6) ____ were expensive, but (7) ____ decided to buy them anyway.


    1. They

    2. She

    3. She

    4. They

    5. They

    6. They

    7. They


    In the above paragraph, Maria and Sarah are the antecedents, and the pronouns that refer to them are they and their. In sentence 2, she refers to Maria, whereas in sentence 3, she refers to Sarah. In sentence 4, they refers to both Maria and Sarah. In sentence 5 and 6, they refer to Maria and Sarah. In sentence 7, they refers to the shoes that both Maria and Sarah bought.


    Pronoun-antecedent agreement is a crucial aspect of writing that can make a significant difference in the clarity and effectiveness of your writing. The worksheet provided above is an excellent tool that you can use to practice and develop your skills in this area. Remember, the key to mastering pronoun-antecedent agreement is to pay attention to the number and gender of the antecedent, and to make sure that the pronoun that refers to it agrees in number and gender.