• 2022年10月27日


    When it comes to the power and authority of the executive branch, one of the key tools at their disposal is the signing of executive agreements. But what exactly are executive agreements, and are they considered a formal exercise of power?

    First, let`s define what an executive agreement is. Simply put, it is an agreement between the president of the United States and a foreign government or international organization. Unlike treaties, which require Senate approval, executive agreements do not need to be ratified by Congress. They are usually used to address issues such as trade, defense, and foreign aid.

    So, are executive agreements considered a formal exercise of power? The answer is yes. While they may not carry the same weight as treaties, they are still an important tool in the president`s foreign policy arsenal. As the head of the executive branch, the president has the authority to negotiate and enter into agreements with foreign entities on behalf of the United States.

    Furthermore, the Supreme Court has recognized the validity of executive agreements, stating that they carry the same legal weight as treaties. In the 1937 case United States v. Pink, the Court upheld an executive agreement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, stating that “an international agreement, which is not a treaty, does not always require the advice and consent of the Senate to make it valid.”

    Of course, there are limitations to the president`s power when it comes to executive agreements. They cannot be used to make laws, and any agreement that goes beyond the president`s constitutional authority can be challenged in court. Additionally, Congress can pass legislation that supersedes an executive agreement, although this is a rare occurrence.

    In conclusion, signing executive agreements is indeed a formal exercise of power for the president. While they may not carry the same weight as treaties, they are an important tool for the executive branch in conducting foreign policy and addressing issues on the international stage. As with any exercise of power, there are limitations and constraints, but the validity of executive agreements has been recognized by the Supreme Court and is an important part of our country`s diplomatic toolbox.

  • 2022年10月26日


    An agreement for lease with works is a legal document that outlines the terms and conditions between a landlord and a tenant for the leasing of a property that requires significant works before it can be occupied. This agreement is important for both parties to ensure that they are aware of their responsibilities and obligations.

    Many landlords may find themselves in a situation where they own a property that is not suitable for immediate occupancy due to its condition. In such cases, they may choose to carry out significant works before leasing the property to a tenant. These works could include renovations, structural alterations, or even complete building works.

    An agreement for lease with works is the legal document that outlines the terms and conditions of the lease, including the works that the landlord is undertaking, the time frame for completion, and the terms of payment. It also outlines the responsibilities and obligations of both parties during the works, as well as after the completion of the lease term.

    The agreement will typically specify the start and end dates of the lease, the rent payable by the tenant, the deposit amount, and the terms of payment. It may also contain clauses related to the termination of the lease, renewal options, and the consequences of any breach of terms.

    One of the important clauses in the agreement for lease with works is the obligations of the tenant during the works period. The tenant is often required to allow access to the property for the works to be carried out, and may be required to vacate the property for a period of time during the works. The tenant is also generally responsible for ensuring that the property is kept secure and safe during the works.

    From the landlord`s perspective, the agreement for lease with works is essential in ensuring that the tenant is aware of their obligations during the works period and the lease term. It provides a level of certainty and transparency in the leasing process, which benefits both parties.

    In summary, an agreement for lease with works is an important legal document that outlines the terms and conditions of a lease for a property that requires significant works before it can be occupied. It is essential for both landlords and tenants to ensure that they are aware of their responsibilities and obligations during the works period and the lease term. With proper planning and execution, an agreement for lease with works can provide a solid foundation for a successful leasing arrangement.

  • 2022年10月18日


    As of December 2020, Dish Network and CBS Corporation have reached a new multi-year agreement, which means Dish subscribers can once again access CBS programming.

    The agreement, which includes both CBS-owned local affiliates and the CBS Sports Network, ensures that Dish customers can watch live sporting events, news programs, and their favorite TV shows on CBS. This is great news for fans of popular CBS programs such as “NCIS,” “Blue Bloods,” and “The Big Bang Theory.”

    The CBS Sports Network, which is a cable sports channel owned by CBS, also returns to the Dish lineup, giving subscribers access to a wide range of live college and professional sports, including football, basketball, and hockey.

    So why did the Dish CBS dispute occur in the first place? In 2019, the previous agreement between the companies expired, and negotiations for a new agreement broke down. This resulted in a blackout of CBS channels for Dish subscribers for a few months until a deal was struck in November 2019.

    The latest agreement between Dish and CBS was reached without any disruption to the service, ensuring that Dish customers can continue to enjoy their beloved CBS programming without interruption.

    For Dish subscribers, the return of CBS programming means they can catch up on their favorite shows, stay up-to-date with breaking news, and watch exciting sporting events. Additionally, the CBS Sports Network provides fans with in-depth analysis, highlights, and commentary on a wide variety of sports.

    In conclusion, the new Dish CBS agreement is great news for Dish subscribers and CBS fans who can now enjoy uninterrupted access to their favorite programming. Both companies worked hard to reach a mutually beneficial deal, and this latest agreement serves as a reminder of the importance of negotiation and compromise in business relationships.

  • 2022年10月7日


    The coefficient of agreement, also known as Cohen`s kappa statistic, is a measure of inter-rater reliability, which assesses the consistency between two or more raters in their classification of an attribute or behavior. In statistical analyses, the coefficient of agreement is used to evaluate the agreement or disagreement among raters and to determine the extent of agreement beyond chance.

    In R, the coefficient of agreement can be computed using the kappa() function in the ‘irr’ package. The function requires two inputs: the ratings or classifications made by the raters and a summary of the ratings, which is used as a reference or gold standard. The ratings can be in the form of nominal or ordinal variables, or in binary categories such as true/false or present/absent.

    To illustrate the use of kappa() function, let`s consider an example in which two doctors rate the severity of a disease on a scale of 1 to 5. The data can be imported into R as a data frame with two columns, one for each rater, and the rows representing the cases or patients. The summary of the ratings can be computed as the mode or median of the ratings across all cases.

    # create simulated data


    rater1 <- sample(1:5, 50, replace = TRUE)

    rater2 <- sample(1:5, 50, replace = TRUE)

    dat <- data.frame(Rater1 = rater1, Rater2 = rater2)

    # compute summary of ratings

    summary <- apply(dat, 1, median)

    # compute coefficient of agreement


    kappa(dat[, 1:2], summary)

    The output of the kappa() function shows the coefficient of agreement, which ranges from -1 to 1, with 0 indicating chance agreement and 1 indicating perfect agreement. A coefficient of 0.8 or higher is considered a good level of agreement, while a coefficient below 0.5 suggests poor agreement.

    In addition to the kappa() function, R also provides other functions for computing inter-rater reliability, such as alpha(), rho(), and ICC(). These functions differ in their assumptions about the type of data and the level of measurement, and may yield different results depending on the context and purpose of the analysis.

    Overall, the coefficient of agreement in R is a useful tool for assessing the reliability and validity of ratings or measurements made by human observers, and for identifying sources of error or bias in the data. As a professional, understanding the coefficient of agreement and its application in R can help you to interpret and explain the results of research studies or data analyses that involve human judgments or observations.